Science

Animals & Nature

The Earth is 4.6 billion years old — but how can humans relate to a number so colossal, and where do we fit on the geologic timeline? Comparing the Earth’s lifetime to one calendar year, events like the extinction of

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dinosaurs and Columbus setting sail took place relatively recently. Joshua M. Sneideman reminds us of our time and place in the universe. Lesson by Joshua M. Sneideman, animation by Powerhouse Animation Studios Inc.

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Category:  Geography & Travel | Science
Keywords: Age | Earth | Universe
High elevations can be a problem for humans. Since the air is thinner, you get less oxygen with every breath, leading to all kinds of negative side effects. But there are millions of people around the world who spend their whole

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lives at high elevations with seemingly little to no trouble.

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Category:  Geography & Travel | Science
Keywords: Breathing | Evolution | Mountains
What makes a tree grow tall? And do trees ever stop growing? Explore how photosynthesis and gravity can affect and limit the height of trees.

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Reaching heights of over 100 meters, Californian sequoias tower over Earth’s other 60,000 tree species. But even these behemoths seem to have their limits: no sequoia on record has been able to grow taller than 130 meters. So what exactly is stopping these trees from growing taller, forever? Valentin Hammoudi investigates why trees have limited heights.

Lesson by Valentin Hammoudi, directed by Doug Alberts.

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Keywords: Growth | Height | Trees
The immense swell of a tsunami can grow up to 100 feet, hitting speeds over 500 mph — a treacherous combination for anyone or anything in its path. Alex Gendler details the causes of these towering terrors and explains

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how scientists are seeking to reduce their destruction in the future.

Lesson by Alex Gendler, animation by Augenblick Studios.

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Humankind has been looking for the giant squid (Architeuthis) since we first started taking pictures underwater. But the elusive deep-sea predator could never be caught on film. Oceanographer and inventor Edith Widder

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shares the key insight — and the teamwork — that helped to capture the squid on camera for the first time.

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Keywords: Oceans | Research
Gregory Berns spent his entire life around dogs. So when his most beloved pet passed away, he began to wonder whether his dog reciprocated the same love and care he felt for him. As a neuroscientist at Emory University,

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he took his curiosity to the test. Now, he scans the brains of dogs using MRI machines, trying to decode canine behavior using brain activity.

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Keywords: Dogs | Medicine | Training
Vox
SweeTango, Zestar, Rave, Cosmic Crisp, Evercrisp, Arctic, Kissabel, Envy. These are the names of fancy new apples hoping to satisfy your taste buds.

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Farmers are racing to grow and sell the perfect apple, one with the best texture, the best crunch, the best flavor — even an apple that won’t brown.

The most innovative apples on the market are patented, trademarked, and have catchy names, logos, and slogans. And consumers have shown they’re willing to pay a premium price for an apple that guarantees a flavor-packed bite.

Watch the video above to learn more about why Red Delicious apples have dominated the market for so long (despite less-than-sublime taste) and how it all changed when the Honeycrisp sparked consumer demand for a superior tasting apple.

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Category:  Food | Science

If you doubled in size, your weight would be eight times greater. That’s the trouble with growing tall. Gravity’s pull is keeping us all down. But there are a few earthly giants that have fought gravity and won. 

Keywords: Animals | Height | Length

Size is the most under appreciated regulators of living things. Let us demonstrate that by throwing animals from buildings.

Category:  Science
Keywords: Big | Small
Though the common ancestor of all modern birds could fly, many different bird species have independently lost their flight. Flight can have incredible benefits, especially for escaping predators, hunting and traveling long

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distances. But it also has high costs: consuming huge amounts of energy and limiting body size and weight. Gillian Gibb explores what makes birds give up the power of flight.

Lesson by Gillian Gibb, directed by Anton Bogaty.

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Keywords: Birds | Flying

Astronomy

Passage written by Carl Sagan for the book Pale Blue Dot published by Random House,
Copyright ©1994 Democritus Properties, LLC

Category:  Science
Keywords: Universe | Unknown
Too often we think of air as empty space — but compared to a vacuum, air is actually pretty heavy. So, just how heavy is it? And if it’s so heavy, why doesn’t it crush us? Dan Quinn describes the fundamentals of air pressure and

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explains how it affects our bodies, the weather and the universe at large.

Lesson by Dan Quinn, animation by Sandro Katamashvili.

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Keywords: Environment | Weight
Jedidah Isler first fell in love with the night sky as a little girl. Now she’s an astrophysicist who studies supermassive hyperactive black holes. In a charming talk, she takes us trillions of kilometers from Earth to introduce us

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to objects that can be 1 to 10 billion times the mass of the sun — and which sometimes shoot powerful jet streams of particles in our direction.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Sun | Universe
At Switzerland’s Kulmhotel Gornergrat, guests sleep among the mountains and under the stars. The establishment is home to an observatory that has drawn astronomers from around the world. The lack of light pollution and

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dry air create the optimal conditions for stargazing. At an elevation of over 10,000 feet, it is the highest hotel in Switzerland, nestled among a mountain range that includes the Matterhorn.

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Category:  Geography & Travel | Science
Keywords: Hotels | Universe
Vox
What it took to collect these 54-million-year-old photons from a supermassive black hole.
On April 10, 2019, the team announced their results: They had successfully imaged the supermassive black

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hole in the center of the galaxy m87, which is nearly 54 million light-years away from us. They were able to achieve unprecedented resolution using very long baseline interferometry, which combines the observations of multiple radio telescopes across the globe.

The team wanted to find out whether Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity holds up in the extreme environment of black holes, and the results do, in fact, seem to be consistent with the predictions. In the future, we may see more and sharper images of black holes as the team targets smaller wavelengths of light and recruits more telescopes. Eventually, they may include an orbiting space telescope.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Pictures | Universe

Body

At some point, you’ve probably learned about the five senses: sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch. However, the classic list doesn’t account for all the sensations we experience and use to navigate the world around us!

Category:  Science
Keywords: Other senses | Senses

Lots of things go crazy in a woman’s body when she’s pregnant, but Hank tells you about three cool phenomena you might not have heard about. You’ll want to thank your mom when you find out what they are!

Category:  Science
Keywords: Babies | Birthdays | Pregnancy
Before Edgar Wright and Wes Anderson, before Chuck Jones and Jackie Chan, there was Buster Keaton, one of the founding fathers of visual comedy. And nearly 100 years after he first appeared onscreen, we’re still

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learning from him. Today, I’d like to talk about the artistry (and the thinking) behind his gags.

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Category:  Art | Science
Keywords: Acting | Hair
When it comes to what you bite, chew and swallow, your choices have a direct and long-lasting effect on the most powerful organ in your body: your brain. So which foods cause you to feel so tired after lunch? Or so restless

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at night? Mia Nacamulli takes you into the brain to find out.

Lesson by Mia Nacamulli, animation by Private Island.

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Category:  Food | Science
Keywords: Brain | Food

Jennifer Jarrett never forgets a face. No, really. The super recognizer can see someone and immediately recognize them, regardless of how much time has passed.

Category:  Psychology | Science
Keywords: Face | Memory

While customs and traditions involving pregnancy vary worldwide, the developmental process is essentially universal. Find out about the science of pregnancy from conception, through the three trimesters, and to labor and delivery.

Category:  Science
Keywords: Babies | Pregnancy

Playing sound effects both pleasant and awful, Julian Treasure shows how sound affects us in four significant ways. Listen carefully for a shocking fact about noisy open-plan offices.

Category:  Psychology | Science
Keywords: Senses | Sounds
How long did it take you to learn how to ride a bicycle? How long do you think it would take you to un-learn how to ride a bicycle? Is it true that you can never forget how to ride a bicycle? How do these biases in your brain

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actually work? With the help of a group of welders, engineer Destin Sandlin created an experiment using a “backwards” bicycle to explore these very questions.

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Category:  Psychology | Science
Keywords: Bicycles | Brain | Learning
The vast majority of people who’ve lost a limb can still feel it — not as a memory or vague shape, but in complete lifelike detail. They can flex their phantom fingers and sometimes even feel the chafe of a watch band or the

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throb of an ingrown toenail. What causes these phantom limb sensations? Joshua W. Pate explains how the brain reacts to a missing limb.

Lesson by Joshua W. Pate, directed by Kozmonot Animation Studio.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Body | Brain
Imagine something small enough to float on a particle of dust that holds the keys to understanding cancer, virology, and genetics. Luckily for us, such a thing exists in the form of trillions upon trillions of human, lab-grown cells called HeLa. But where did we get these cells? Robin Bulleri tells the story of Henrietta Lacks, a woman whose DNA led to countless cures, patents, and discoveries.

Lesson by Robin Bulleri, animation by Brandon Denmark.[/show_more]
Category:  Science
Keywords: Immortality | Research
Explore the science of the phenomenon of “floaters,” those tiny blobs that swim across your field of vision.
Sometimes, against a uniform, bright background such as a clear sky or a blank computer screen, you

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might see things floating across your field of vision. What are these moving objects, and how are you seeing them? Michael Mauser explains the visual phenomenon that is floaters.

Lesson by Michael Mauser, animation by Reflective Films.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Eyes | Light
We have over 600 muscles in our bodies that help bind us together, hold us up, and help us move. Your muscles also need your constant attention, because the way you treat them on a daily basis determines whether they will

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wither or grow. Jeffrey Siegel illustrates how a good mix of sleep, nutrition and exercise keep your muscles as big and strong as possible.

Lesson by Jeffrey Siegel, animation by Brett Underhill.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Body | Exercising | Muscles | Strength
Two thirds of the population believes a myth that has been propagated for over a century: that we use only 10% of our brains. Hardly! Our neuron-dense brains have evolved to use the least amount of energy while carrying

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the most information possible — a feat that requires the entire brain. Richard E. Cytowic debunks this neurological myth (and explains why we aren’t so good at multitasking).

Lesson by Richard E. Cytowic, animation by TOGETHER.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Brain | Statistics
Discover how evolution and natural selection influence why the human body has vestigial organs— body parts that no longer serve their original purpose.

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You know that little pink thing nestled in the corner of your eye? It’s actually the remnant of a third eyelid. In humans, it’s vestigial, meaning it no longer serves its original purpose. There are several other vestigial structures in the human body, quietly riding along from one of our ancestor species to the next. But why have they stuck around for so long? Dorsa Amir investigates.

Lesson by Dorsa Amir, directed by Avi Ofer.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Body | Eyes
Whether we cry during a sad movie, while chopping onions, or completely involuntarily, our eyes are constantly producing tears. Alex Gendler tracks a particularly watery day in the life of Iris (the iris) as she cycles through

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basal, reflex and emotional tears.

Lesson by Alex Gendler, animation by The Moving Company Animation Studio.

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Category:  Psychology | Science
Keywords: Crying | Eyes
The human voice is capable of incredible variety and range. As we age, our bodies undergo two major changes which explore that range. So how exactly does our voice box work, and what causes these shifts in speech?

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Shaylin A. Schundler describes how and why our voices change when we get older.

Lesson by Shaylin A. Schundler, directed by Andrew Foerster & Nick Counter.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Change | Voice
*Yaaawwwwwn* Did just reading the word make you feel like yawning yourself? Known as contagious yawning, the reasons behind this phenomenon have been attributed to both the physiological and psychological. It’s

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been observed in children as young as four and even in dogs! Claudia Aguirre visits the many intriguing theories that might explain contagious yawning.

Lesson by Claudia Aguirre, animation by TED-Ed.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Habits | Sleep

People ask Google everything under the sun. One of the most commonly searched questions in the world is “How do I grow a beard?”? Let SciShow explain.

Category:  Science
Keywords: Appearance | Asking | Questions
Why do medical implants like insulin pumps and prosthetic knees need replacement? Explore how the immune system fights implants and how new devices are trying to help.

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Insulin pumps improve the lives of millions of people with diabetes around the world by monitoring blood sugar, delivering insulin, and preventing the need for constant finger-pricking. But there’s a catch: they’re temporary. And it’s not only insulin pumps that have this problem, but all bodily implants. Why is that? Kaitlyn Sadtler details how our immune system reacts to foreign bodies.

Lesson by Kaitlyn Sadtler, directed by Andrew Foerster.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Body | Implants | Surgery

Did you know that if you start working out, your body will kind of “remember” what it’s like to be strong, even after you take some time off? How are your muscles able to do that?

Category:  Science
Keywords: Memory | Muscles

Health

Which came first: the stress or the pimples? The physical reactions to stress can cause major breakouts, which, in turn, can be even more stressful! Claudia Aguirre gives just one more reason to get that stress under control.

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Lesson by Claudia Aguirre, animation by Alan Foreman.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Appearance | Health | Stress

Does the early bird really get the worm?
What If You Sleep 2 Hours Less Every Night?

Category:  Psychology | Science
Keywords: Morning | Night
Myron Rolle is a man of many talents. After graduating high school, he was considered one of the leading prospects for the NFL. Recruited by some of the biggest names in college football, he went on to become the starting

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safety for the Florida State Seminoles, eventually drafted to the NFL by the Tennessee Titans. But Myron’s ambitions didn’t end there. Now, he’s a Rhodes scholar on his was to becoming a world-class neurosurgeon.

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Category:  Science | Sports
Keywords: Medicine | Sports

Nilofer Merchant suggests a small idea that just might have a big impact on your life and health: Next time you have a one-on-one meeting, make it into a “walking meeting” — and let ideas flow while you walk and talk.

Keywords: Health | Meetings | Walking
Vox
One man cracked his knuckles in one hand for 60 years and not the other. Watch the video to see what he found out.
There’s a long-held myth that cracking your knuckles can damage your hands. The sound definitely might

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make people around you cringe, but what’s making those noises, and is it actually bad for you?

There’s a space in your joints filled with synovial fluid, a liquid that reduces the friction in your joints when you move. It contains gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide).

When you pop a joint, you stretch out that space between the bones. That expanding space creates negative pressure, like a vacuum, that sucks in the synovial fluid. It forms bubbles, which then collapse, and that’s what you hear.

Most medical sources agree that unless you experience pain when you pop your joints, you’re probably fine to keep doing it. Researchers (including one man who cracked his knuckles on just one hand for 60 years) haven’t established a connection between cracking your knuckles and arthritis.

One 1990 study of 300 people did find that cracking knuckles over a long period of time led to hand swelling and decreased grip strength, but there hasn’t been any follow-up research on that.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Hands | Misconceptions
From the smallest single-celled organism to the largest creatures on Earth, every living thing is defined by its genes. With recent advancements, scientists can change an organism’s fundamental features in record time using

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gene editing tools such as CRISPR. But where did this medical marvel come from and how does it work? Andrea M. Henle examines the science behind this new technology.

Lesson by Andrea M. Henle, directed by Adam Wells.

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Category:  Science
How do cancer cells grow? How does chemotherapy fight cancer (and cause negative side effects)? The answers lie in cell division. George Zaidan explains how rapid cell division is cancer’s “strength” — and also its weakness.

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Lesson by George Zaidan, animation by TED-Ed.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Cancer | Health
The victory of the underdog. The last minute penalty shot that wins the tournament. The training montage. Many people love to glorify victory on the field, cheer for teams, and play sports. But should we be obsessed with

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sports? Are sports as good for us as we make them out to be, or are they just a fun and entertaining pastime? Leah Lagos and Jaspal Ricky Singh show what science has to say on the matter. Lesson by Leah Lagos and Jaspal Ricky Singh, animation by Kozmonot Animation Studio.

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Category:  Science | Sports
Keywords: Body | Brain | Health | Sports
When you eat something loaded with sugar, your taste buds, your gut and your brain all take notice. This activation of your reward system is not unlike how bodies process addictive substances such as alcohol or nicotine —

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an overload of sugar spikes dopamine levels and leaves you craving more. Nicole Avena explains why sweets and treats should be enjoyed in moderation.

Lesson by Nicole Avena, animation by STK Films.

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Category:  Food | Science
Keywords: Brain | Eating habits | Sweet

Should you be using makeup?

Category:  Science
Keywords: Cosmetics | Danger
In today’s world, balancing school, work, kids and more, most of us can only hope for the recommended eight hours of sleep. Examining the science behind our body’s internal clock, Jessa Gamble reveals the surprising and

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substantial program of rest we should be observing.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Body | Sleep

James regales us with his tales of donating blood.

Category:  Art | Science
Keywords: Donating | Hospitals
Vox

Where you were born makes all the difference.

Category:  Science
Keywords: Death | Life | Lifespan

American healthcare might not be the best world, but it is the most expensive.

Category:  Science
Keywords: Hospitals | Prices
Water is essentially everywhere in our world, and the average human is composed of between 55 and 60% water. So what role does water play in our bodies, and how much do we actually need to drink to stay healthy? Mia

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Nacamulli details the health benefits of hydration.

Lesson by Mia Nacamulli, animation by Chris Bishop.

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Category:  Food | Science
Keywords: Drinking | Water

If you could decide today… how long do you want to live?

Category:  Science
Keywords: Health | Immortality | Old age

Look alive, you! Today we’re diving into the science behind dark circles under your eyes, and all the things that might cause them – tiredness included.

Category:  Science
Keywords: Eyes | Sleep
Vox
There’s a case for making playgrounds riskier.
The stereotypical modern playground — with its bright colors and rubberized flooring — is designed to be

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clean, safe, and lawsuit-proof. But that isn’t necessarily the best design for kids.

US playground designers spent decades figuring out how to minimize risk: reducing heights, softening surfaces, and limiting loose parts. But now, some are experimenting with creating risk. A growing body of research has found that risky outdoor play is a key part of children’s health, promoting social interactions, creativity, problem-solving, and resilience.

Some communities are even experimenting with “adventure playgrounds,” a format with origins in World War II Denmark, where bomb sites became impromptu playgrounds. Filled with props like nails, hammers, saws, paint, tires, and wood planks, these spaces look more like junkyards than play spaces — and parents are often kept outside of the playground while children are chaperoned by staff. Now, that question of keeping children safe versus keeping children engaged is at the heart of a big debate in playground design.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Children | Playing
Sitting down for brief periods can help us recover from stress or recuperate from exercise. But nowadays, our lifestyles make us sit much more than we move around. Are our bodies built for such a sedentary existence?

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Murat Dalkilinç investigates the hidden risks of sitting down.

Lesson by Murat Dalkilinç, animation by Oxbow Creative.

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Category:  Science
From the microbes in our stomachs to the ones on our teeth, we are homes to millions of unique and diverse communities which help our bodies function. Jessica Green and Karen Guillemin emphasize the importance of understanding the many organisms that make up each and every organism.

Lesson by Jessica Green and Karen Guillemin, animation by nenatv.[/show_more]
Category:  Food | Science
Keywords: Diet | Identity

Logic

In a dystopian world, your resistance group is humanity’s last hope. Unfortunately, you’ve all been captured by the tyrannical rulers and brought to the ancient coliseum for their deadly entertainment. Will you be able to

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solve the passcode riddle and get everyone out safely? Ganesh Pai shows how.

Lesson by Ganesh Pai, animation by Jun Zee Myers.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Numbers | Problem solving
Townspeople are demanding that a corrupt merchant’s collection of 30 rubies be confiscated to reimburse the victims of his schemes. The king announces that the fine will be determined through a game of wits

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between the merchant and the king’s most clever advisor – you. Can you outfox the merchant and win back the greatest amount of rubies to help his victims? Dennis Shasha shows how.

Lesson by Dennis Shasha, directed by Artrake Studio.

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Category:  Psychology | Science
Keywords: Jewelry | Problem solving
The earliest time measurements were observations of cycles of the natural world, using patterns of changes from day to night and season to season to build calendars. More precise time-keeping eventually came along to put

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time in more convenient boxes. But what exactly are we measuring? Andrew Zimmerman Jones contemplates whether time is something that physically exists or is just in our heads.

Lesson by Andrew Zimmerman Jones, directed by Nice Shoes.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Time | Universe

In a very short amount of time the human population exploded and is still growing very fast. Will this lead to the end of our civilization?

Category:  Science
Keywords: People | Population
Vox

Modern cities are designed for cars. But the city of Barcelona is testing out an urban design trick that can give cities back to pedestrians.

Category:  Geography & Travel | Science
Keywords: Cars | Cities
Vox

Can we all agree that the left lane is for passing, please?

Category:  Geography & Travel | Science
Keywords: Cars | Driving | Speed

Physics & Chemistry

In the competitive world of hot pepper breeding, one man is smoking the competition. Meet “Smokin’” Ed Currie. He’s the man behind the world’s hottest pepper—the “Carolina Reaper.” For the past three decades, Currie has

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been pushing the limits of the Scoville scale—breeding hotter and hotter peppers. We went behind the scenes at his South Carolina farm, where he’s bred a number of secret, unreleased specimens that he claims are even hotter than his famous Reaper. You may want to have some milk ready for this one.

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Category:  Food | Science
At the University of Texas, Dr. Kate Biberdorf is breaking stereotypes and blowing stuff up—all in a good pair of heels. Through her theatrical and dynamic approach to teaching, Dr. Biberdorf is breaking the stigma of what a

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stereotypical scientist looks like, while reaching students that might otherwise be intimidated by chemistry. By making waves within her field and empowering the next generation to get involved in STEM, she’s sending a message that any human can be a scientist.

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Keywords: Science | Stereotypes | Teaching
Marie Skłodowska Curie’s revolutionary research laid the groundwork for our understanding of physics and chemistry, blazing trails in oncology, technology, medicine, and nuclear physics, to name a few. But what did she

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actually do? Shohini Ghose expounds on some of Marie Skłodowska Curie’s most revolutionary discoveries.

Lesson by Shohini Ghose, animation by Anna Nowakowska.

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Category:  Science
Keywords: Science | Women
Although one third of the population suffers from motion sickness, scientists aren’t exactly sure what causes it. Like the common cold, it’s a seemingly simple problem that’s still without a cure. And if you think it’s bad on a long

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family car ride, imagine being a motion sick astronaut! Rose Eveleth explains what’s happening in our bodies when we get the car sick blues.

Lesson by Rose Eveleth, animation by Tom Gran.

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Category:  Geography & Travel | Science
Keywords: Moving | Transport
When you take a bite of a hot pepper, your body reacts as if your mouth is on fire — because that’s essentially what you’ve told your brain! Rose Eveleth details the science and history behind spicy foods, giving insights into

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why some people continue to pay the painful price for a little spice.

Lesson by Rose Eveleth, animation by Flaming Medusa Studios Inc.

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Category:  Food | Science
Keywords: Food | Pain | Spicy
What is turbulence and why does it happen? Explore the phenomenon that has perplexed physicists for over a century.

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You’re on an airplane when you feel a sudden jolt. Outside your window nothing seems to be happening, yet the plane continues to rattle you and your fellow passengers as it passes through turbulent air in the atmosphere. What exactly is turbulence, and why does it happen? Tomás Chor dives into one of the prevailing mysteries of physics: the complex phenomenon of turbulence.

Lesson by Tomás Chor, directed by Biljana Labovic.

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Category:  Geography & Travel | Science
Keywords: Mysteries | Planes | Transport | Travel
Vox

Turns out there’s a lot of chemistry in cooking.

Category:  Food | Science
Keywords: Cookies | Cooking | Baking | Temperature
Dig into the 800 year history and architecture of the Leaning Tower of Pisa and find out what gives the tower its infamous tilt.

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In 1990, the Italian government enlisted top engineers to stabilize Pisa’s famous Leaning Tower. There’d been many attempts during its 800 year history, but computer models revealed the urgency of their situation. The tower would topple if it reached an angle of 5.44 degrees— and it was currently leaning at 5.5. What gives the tower its infamous tilt? Alex Gendler explores the monument’s history.

Lesson by Alex Gendler, directed by Aim Creative Studios.

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Category:  Geography & Travel | Science
Keywords: Italy | Landmarks

Vocabulary:
cove
secluded
float
shore
anchor
lighthouse
greenhouse
handsaw
hammer
power tool
nail
board (noun)
ton
land sick
biomass
canoe
paddle
real estate
prosper
fulfilled

Expressions:
subsistence living
hon

Vocabulary:
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word
word

Expressions:
expression
expression
expression
expression

Vocabulary:
prestigious
involuntary
swindler
fraudulence
unwarranted
concern
unfounded
impostor
syndrome
faculty
pervasive
prevalent
disproportionately
underrepresented
downplay
abnormality
self-esteem
spiral
accolade
threshold
susceptible
voice (verb)
peer
dismiss
excel
ease
mentor
competence
banish
frank

Expressions:
nagging doubt
shake a feeling
put something to rest
surefire way

Vocabulary:
filmmaker
principle
handcuff
clown
distill
underdog
aspect
familiar
unfamiliar
chopsticks
keyboard
organic
grounded
clarity
stuntman
steady
gag
perfectionist
rhythm
distinct
continuity
elbow
bunch
flail around
unlike
invincible
impressive
humanize
asset
payoff
relentlessness
finale

Expressions:
kick ass
going above and beyond
get smacked in the face
sell a joke

Vocabulary:
explosion
smoke (noun)
engine
unique
pilot
route
unemotional
terror
instant
reach out (to someone)
postpone
urgency
purpose
regret
humanity
ego
reflect
eliminate
frame (verb)
artistic
talent
bawl
miracle

Expressions:
bucket list
brace for impact
mend fences
make sense
connecting dots